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How Does Malware Come in to a PC From USB? Closed

There's also proof that malicious firmware could also cause harm and that a firmware could be infected by a computer. Chris Hoffman's article on How-To Geek explains this in detail, but here's the part that answers your guestion: USB device can claim to be a flash drive, a keyboard, and network adapter even at the same time!The key to this problem is the design goal that USB devices could do many different things. For example, a USB flash drive with malicious firmware could function as a USB keyboard. When you connect it to your computer, it could send keyboard-press actions to the computer as if someone sitting at the computer were typing the keys. Thanks to keyboard shortcuts, a malicious firmware functioning as a keyboard couldfor exampleopen a Command Prompt window, download a program from a remote server, run it, and agree to a UAC prompt.The major threat was imposed by the AutoRun feature first introduced in Windows 95 that allows removable media to launch programs without user consent. Another article by Chris Hoffman has more detailed information an examples on this.Since Windows Vista this functionality has been disabled by default, replaced by AutoPlay dialogue. Windows 7 removed Autorun for every device type except CDROM, but it's possible to spoof this information, and AutoPlay can still be trickered manually.AutoRun can be turned off for every device type with a registry tweak:The feature works from a text file, autorun.inf, at the root of the inserted file system. Back then I created a simple CD-ROM that took advantage of the feature by using AutoRun to disable AutoRun for good. The registry modification above was in autorun-off.reg called from this autorun.inf:

• Related Questions

Cannot refresh windows 8.1 after downgrade from windows 10

First, if you haven't backed up your data and any product codes or critical settings, do that please.The reason that the 10 upgrade didn't pick up the product code from the bios could be that your bios was set to auto mode for AHCI, or doesn't have AHCI support. Have you updated your bios and make sure you force AHCI on? That may clear up the first problem. Certainly I had to force AHCI on my Samsung Chronos and to upgrade the BIOS on my wife's Sony laptop. That may help you get back to a functioning Windows 10. Note also if you can run any Windows applications under 8.

1 then you can load 3rd party software to get your product key and try typing it in during the reinstall.If you end up stuck with a disfunctional 8.1, the chances are you are missing critical drivers the manufacturer would have given you hopefully as a cd/dvd or put into a recovery partition. Simply run that if have a CD and do a fresh install, and restore the backed up data and settings (but not system or drivers). A bit painful, but at least it should then allow you to automatically upgrade to Windows 10 when you have run Windows update a few times.If you don't have (or weren't given) the recover cd/dvd then run windows disk management utility (search for disk management or partition management on your computer and select "create and format hard disk partitions".

and you may find a OEM recovery partition which you can either add a drive letter (if it is not protected) or copy it using a disk copy tool to your USB drive to rebuild your recovery "disk".Hope one of the above helps!

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Why is the numpad on a keyboard not designed to print typographically correct symbols?

Historical reasons only plus a side dish of "backward compatibility".The original PC keyboards were very much 'typewriter-like'. Also, in the original ASCII set there were no 'fullwidth plus', 'minus', and 'multiply' symbols. The common MS-DOS 'extended ASCII' set contained a proper 'divide' but only in certain codepages. (Only a guess, but it can be assumed the asterisk was chosen for 'multiplication' rather than because it would look too close to the lowercase character x.)Since lots of computers were used for administrative purposes only, the calculator-like keypad addition appeared later on. Initially it doubled for use with the arrow, page up/down, and home/end keys; later on, these in turn appeared as extra extra keys. The labeling on the keypad keys duplicated those of calculators at that time, but the character they typed had to be the same as the original ones used, for compatibility with existing software and for keyboards without the extra keys.The key caps reflect what the keys insert into programs to do the function they describe. Its quite similar to pressing a key labelled "Backspace" and expecting that literal text to turn up.I know of no software at all that allows to use the Unicode character for multiplication. The same goes for the Unicode characters Mathematical Minus and Divide (come to think of it, neither do other function/characters such as the Square glyph "2" entering "52" into a calculator does not make it show "25" and the Square Root character).

Its not the only peculiarity of standard keyboards. Most have All Caps letters printed on the keys, but all of the computers I know start up in lowercase mode, and it takes an extra key (Shift) or software mode (Caps Lock) to actually enter uppercase characters

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Windows 7: Create keyboard shortcut that launches repair network connection?

You can use the PowerShell Get-TroubleshootingPack Cmdlet to take you through the process of creating an answer file to later use with Invoke-TroubleshootingPack Cmdlet to automate.1. PowerShell (create answer file)Options to pick during answer file creationImportant: I only picked what I think I needed to pick but do further testing and put more time and thought into each answer just in case you see something applicable in your case.Pick x Exit for all the rest of the answers and press EnterAnswer File ContentNote: *Now that you have an answer file, you can use it to point to jobs that you can automate or create shortcuts to run as a batch as I'll talk about with more detail below.2. PowerShell (run diagnostic process)Note: The $aFile variable value should point to the answer file you just created in #1 above. The $dFolder variable value should be a folder to check for the results of the diagnostic after it runs. Now open up the result files from this command you invoked with the answer file by going to the folder specified in the $dFolder variable value and you'll have some files you can further analyze. Result Folder FilesNote: This expects the answer file to be already configured and in a readable location for the Invoke-TroubleshootingPack cmdlet to utilize so this is what you create with the above step #1. Other than that, you only need to set the AnswerFile and the DiagFolder values to be valid locations you can write to.After this process runs you should see in the Windows Event Viewer of the System log and Event ID 4100 from the "Diagostics-Neworking" source with an "Information Level" message indicating "The Network Diagnostics Framework has completed the diagnosis phase of operation, but no network problem was identified."

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Ubuntu Server KVM, Passthrough PCI Device

You need to enable IOMMU in your BIOS.Here's an eHow guide: http://www.ehow.com/how_7705109_enable-iommu-bios.htmlQuoted from above page:IOMMU (I/O Memory Management Unit) is a feature supported by motherboard chipsets that provides enhanced virtual-to-physical memory mapping capabilities, including the ability to map large portions of non-contiguous memory. IOMMU can be enabled in the motherboard's BIOS, in order to resolve issues with virtual machine device drivers.Reboot the computer and note the key specified to access or enter "Setup" in the initial boot message displayed when the computer first boots.

Reboot the computer and immediately press and hold down the keyboard key or keys specified in the initial boot message. Note the navigation keys specified in the BIOS setup screen that appears. Usually the keys specified are the "Up," "Down," "Left," and "Right" arrow keys to move the cursor, "Page Up" and "Page Down" to highlight a selection in a list, the "Tab" key to move horizontally through settings, and the "Enter" key to select a highlighted setting.

Navigate through each BIOS screen using the "arrow" keys and find the "IOMMU," "I/O Memory Management Unit," or "Intel VT-d"setting (usually located under the "Advanced" or "Chipset/Northbridge/Tylersburg IOH/Intel VT for Directed I/O Configuration"settings menu). Move the cursor over the setting selection box using the "arrow" keys and press the "Page Up" or "Page Down" or specified key to select "Enabled."Press the "F10" key or navigate to the "Exit" menu using the "arrow" keys and move the cursor to the "Save and Exit" item and press the "Enter" key. Move the cursor to the "Yes" selection when confirmation to save settings is presented and press the "Enter" key to save the setting

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Windows 7 can't go to sleep properly or waking up from the improper sleep state after hibernate being turned off

First off, Hiberfil.sys will always be the same size as the amount of ram you have or approximately the same size as the amount of ram you have. This explains why it can be large sometimes. The more ram you have, the larger it needs to be as it stores everything that is in the ram, into this file.

Now for the problem you are having, not sure if you done anything extra or if you have extra software installed that helps with optimizations. But when you turn off hibernation, there is another sleep mode that also utilizes the same file that hibernation uses, and its called hybrid sleep. This is also known as a deep sleep mode as it, combines everything you get from hibernation and everything you get from sleep mode, so that in the event of powerloss while the computer is in this sleep mode, you don't lose your data but the computer can wake up like as if it was in normal sleep mode. If the file that it needs is missing, things can go wrong. Can't be specific as it varies.if you don't need this sleep mode, you can disable it in the power options. And see if this fixes your problem.Another solution could be, windows is not allowing your mouse or keyboard to wake the computer up. You can fix this by going into the device manager, find your keyboard. Go into the properties and check the box allow this device to wake the computer.You can also try the windows troubleshooter in the control panel. Select trouble shooting, in the next window select improve power usage under system and security. This should detect any problems with your power settings

How Does Malware Come in to a PC From USB? Closed 1

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